BRASOV,  German KRONSTADT, Hungarian BRASSÓ, city, capital of Brasov judet (county), central Romania. One of the largest cities of the country, it is on the northern slope of the Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathians), surrounded on three sides by mountains, 105 miles (170 km) north-northwest of Bucharest by road.

Founded by Teutonic Knights in 1211 and first mentioned in documents as Brasov in 1251, it became the center of a Saxon colony trading in cloth, weapons, metalwork, and wax throughout much of Walachia and Moldavia. The substantial autonomy of its German inhabitants was ended in 1876 with the abolition of their separate national status. The old (inner) town, heavily fortified in the 15th century against the Turks, survived with little damage and contains many historic buildings, including the town hall (1420, restored 1777); the 190-foot (58-metre) watchtower, also called Trumpeter's Tower (1528, restored 1910); the Orthodox St. Nicholas' Church (1392, restored 1751); and St. Bartholomew's Church (13th century, the oldest building in Brasov). The Gothic Protestant Church (1385-1477, restored 1711-15), is called the Black Church because of its smoke-blackened walls resulting from a 1689 fire. In Brasov there are several theatres and museums and a university. "The Apostle of Transylvania," Johannes Honterus (1498-1549), who led the Protestant Reformation in the area, lived and died in Brasov (then Kronstadt) and established the first printing press in Transylvania in 1535. The first book printed in the Romanian language, by the deacon Coresi, was published in Brasov in the mid-16th century. Education in Romanian was introduced there in the first Romanian school in 1559.

The city of Brasov is a powerful university center. It is here that the first Faculty of Mechanics in the country was founded. Part of the "Transylvania" University it was to become the best in the country and acquire international repute. Engineers have left this faculty to become researchers, doctors and international personalities. 

Toward the end of the 19th century the long tradition of merchants and craftsmen provided the foundation for industrial growth. In addition to factories manufacturing tractors, trucks, helicopters, and bearings, there are textile and chemical plants. Brasov is also an important road and rail junction. Population  (1996 est.) 380,500.




The County of Brasov is one of the almost 42 counties of Romania, situated in the center of the country, in Southern Transylvania, surrounded by a magnificent mountainous scenery and bearing the sweet burden of a wonderful history.

Brasov is one of the most industrialized counties of the country. The dominant and most powerful branch in the area is the machine industry (tractors, trucks, helicopters) and defense industry, but there are also the chemical, bearings and wood industries sharing great importance.

"Transylvania" University
Brasov - Official Page