German KRONSTADT, Hungarian BRASSÓ, city, capital of Brasov
judet (county), central Romania. One of the largest cities
of the country, it is on the northern slope of the Transylvanian
Alps (Southern Carpathians), surrounded on three sides by mountains,
105 miles (170 km) north-northwest of Bucharest by road.
by Teutonic Knights in 1211 and first mentioned in documents as
Brasov in 1251, it became the center of a Saxon colony trading
in cloth, weapons, metalwork, and wax throughout much of Walachia
and Moldavia. The substantial autonomy of its German inhabitants
was ended in 1876 with the abolition of their separate national
status. The old (inner) town, heavily fortified in the 15th century
against the Turks, survived with little damage and contains many
historic buildings, including the town hall (1420, restored 1777);
the 190-foot (58-metre) watchtower, also called Trumpeter's Tower
(1528, restored 1910); the Orthodox St. Nicholas' Church (1392,
restored 1751); and St. Bartholomew's Church (13th century, the
oldest building in Brasov). The Gothic Protestant Church
(1385-1477, restored 1711-15), is called the Black Church because
of its smoke-blackened walls resulting from a 1689 fire. In Brasov
there are several theatres and museums and a university. "The
Apostle of Transylvania," Johannes Honterus (1498-1549), who
led the Protestant Reformation in the area, lived and died in Brasov
(then Kronstadt) and established the first printing press in Transylvania
in 1535. The first book printed in the Romanian language, by the
deacon Coresi, was published in Brasov in the mid-16th century.
Education in Romanian was introduced there in the first Romanian
school in 1559.
city of Brasov is a powerful university center. It is here that
the first Faculty of Mechanics in the country was founded. Part
of the "Transylvania" University it was to become the
best in the country and acquire international repute. Engineers
have left this faculty to become researchers, doctors and international
the end of the 19th century the long tradition of merchants and
craftsmen provided the foundation for industrial growth. In addition
to factories manufacturing tractors, trucks, helicopters, and bearings,
there are textile and chemical plants. Brasov is also an
important road and rail junction. Population (1996 est.) 380,500.
COUNTY (Judetul BRASOV)
County of Brasov is one of the almost 42 counties of Romania, situated
in the center of the country, in Southern Transylvania, surrounded
by a magnificent mountainous scenery and bearing the sweet burden
of a wonderful history.
is one of the most industrialized counties of the country. The dominant
and most powerful branch in the area is the machine industry (tractors,
trucks, helicopters) and defense industry, but there are also the
chemical, bearings and wood industries sharing great importance.
Brasov - Official Page